Another study was based on a survey of over 18,000 college students from ages 18–25.

This survey asked questions like how many sexual partners they have had since graduating high school, how many sexual partners per year, and how many times per week they have sex.

On the other hand, hook up culture is thought to be oppressive and monolithic, with intimacy only occurring within a specific context.

Jennifer Aubrey and Siobhan Smith have found that between genders there are minimal differences when it comes to behavior and frequency in hookups; on the other hand, women still face a harder social stigma, because their social status decreases with increased sexual partners, while men's social status increases with more sexual partners. Currier, she explores how the phrase "hooking up" conveys different meanings depending on whether a man or woman uses it when describing their sexual encounters; furthermore, Currier notes that men use "hooking up" to emphasize their masculinity and heterosexuality whereas women use the phrase to preserve their femininity by being strategically ambiguous in order to downplay their sexual desires.

During the twenty-first century paid sex was not considered to belong to the category of casual sex; however, in the 1900s-1930s there was more to paid sex than simply the exchange of money–it was a contact between humans without the ties of a relationship.

Technological advancements such as the automobile and movie theaters brought young couples out of their parents' homes, and out from their watchful eyes, giving them more freedom and more opportunity to engage in sexual activity.

Research on hookups is not seated within a singular disciplinary sphere; it sits at the crossroads of theoretical and empirical ideas drawn from a diverse range of fields, including psychology, anthropology, sociology, biology, medicine, and public health." The hookup culture is vaguely defined due to a variety of perspectives taken on this subject related human sexuality.

It is hard to make sense of the hookup culture with understanding why it exists in society and why individuals participate in the culture.

Perceptions of "frat boys" and how this stereotype seems to be the typical male how only pursues women to have sexual relations.

Many female college students explained how the "frat boy" perfectly embodies the persona of a sex driven male.

These developmental shifts, Garcia's systematic review of the literature suggests, is one of the factors driving the increase in hookups, a "popular cultural change that has infiltrated the lives of emerging adults throughout the Western world." The review shows that hookups are becoming increasingly normative among young adults and adolescents in North America and have taken root throughout the Western world, which represents a notable shift in how casual sex is perceived and accepted.

Garcia and others have noted that the "past decade has witnessed an explosion in interest in the topic of hookups, both scientifically and in the popular media.

Studies have shown that most high school girls are more interested in a relationship compared to high school boys, who are mostly interested in sex.